Recently many buyers attentively study labels of bakery products in search of the treasured word: “Without yeast”. Similar interest is caused by active promotion in mass media.
Newspapers and magazines dazzle with headings about “bread which kills us”; on open spaces of the Internet and television channels with enviable frequency movies horror stories about bread and thermophilic yeast are broadcast. In similar movies commentators often are the people who do not have neither chemical, nor biotechnological education (actors, historians, publicists, housewives), and information moves with gross spelling mistakes, in “scandals, intrigues, investigations” style. Such reasonings enter into deep delusion of the simple consumer.
Let’s try to understand whether there are in the nature bezdrozhzhevy bread and thermophilic yeast.
Myth No. 1: “And we do not use baker’s yeast!”
Let’s begin with the fact that an inscription: “Without yeast bread” on a product label – is only a marketing mix. Even if yeast does not use at a test batch, it does not mean that there is no yeast in it. Different ferments – no other than the biological loosening agent containing numerous microflora including yeast.
The matter is that sterile flour in the nature does not exist. Try to take usual flour and to mix it with water. You will see that through some time the received weight will begin “to come to life”, increase in volume, will develop a sourish taste and aroma. It will occur because in it bacteria and fungi which contain in the flour will begin to breed. All bread baking was based on this principle of “spontaneous” fermentation since ancient times.
Microorganisms of flour are 5-9 types of yeast and 50-80 species of bacteria. What of them will prevail in number in fight for “fodder” resources, it is difficult to foretell therefore when using such spontaneous fermentation it is very difficult to producers to trace quality of the received bread. Whereas when using commodity forms of yeast process becomes predictable and operated.
But yeast lives not only in flour. These microorganisms are widespread everywhere: they are present at air, the soil, at plants, at natural waters, at integuments of the person and animals, and even in organisms. Favourite habitat of yeast – a surface of fruits and leaves where they eat various sugars which are a part of juice of plants and nectar of flowers. Such branches of the food industry as winemaking and brewing are based on activity of the yeast living on grapes and hop. Therefore application as the agents loosening dough, waters from under the wetted raisin or hop ferments is one of the thought-over marketing mixes when yeast can be not specified in structure, and upon they are present and participate in process of a sbrazhivaniye of the test.
Myth No. 2: “Thermophilic yeast is guilty of everything!”
The next terrible legend is devoted to thermophilic yeast which as if does not perish during pastries. This delusion very strong sat down at consciousness of fans of a yellow press. Allegedly, at baking of bread yeast, steady against heating, which does not perish are used, and live get to an organism and begin to create “lawlessness” in intestines, causing digestive frustration, allergies and other terrible consequences.
Whether there is thermophilic yeast in the nature? Yes, exist, but meet quite seldom. Besides, their temperature maximum does not exceed +53 °C. And special selection and experimental receiving thermophilic strains of yeast in baking production, first, is irrelevant (there is no need for their use), and, secondly, presents certain difficulties.
It is possible to ask any bakery technologist (even the student of faculty of food technologies) and he will tell that at a temperature from +55 to +59 °C barmy cages perish whereas temperature in the center of a grain crumb at the time of its dredging from the furnace reaches +95 °C. Naturally, all barmy cages in the baked bread are inactivated, in other words – the killed at high temperature.
Not so long ago in the GNU St. Petersburg branch of STATE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE of the baking industry of Rosselkhozakademiya researches of microflora of different grades of flour and finished bakery products right after pastries were conducted. Results showed that in ready samples of bread darnitsky, and also in white bread living cells of yeast and a mold were not found.
Thus, information on universal use of thermophilic yeast has under itself no scientific justification. And in the baking industry they are not used.
Myth No. 3: “By production of yeast the toxic agents making adverse effect on health of the person are used!”
If to look at the list of ingredients in GOST 171-81 on production of the pressed yeast – outdated GOST of times of the USSR of 1981 on which the Internet of article and video records refer then much will feel ill at ease, especially if the person is far from chemistry or is absolutely ignorant of technology of cultivation of yeast. Agree, hardly someone such ingredients as “technical formalin”, “will inspire the washing liquid means “Progress”, “acid sulfuric technical”, “microfertilizer for agriculture” or “construction lime”. Now other GOST P 54731-2011 in which standard references to other state standard specifications standards concerning as technology of cultivation of yeast, and auxiliary and packing materials, chemical reactants and reagents which are used for the laboratory analysis of yeast, and to methods of the analysis are specified is used absolutely.
Among all listed standards, references to which are given in GOST P 54731-2011, it is possible to allocate several groups of the materials used in productions of production of baker’s yeast:
• one are used for production of a barmy substratum;
• other part – for providing the optimum environment for cultivation of yeast;
• the third part is used only for sanitary processing of the equipment, rooms, a laboratory glassware and hands;
• the fourth part – packing materials.
Modern technologies allow to wash out in the most thorough way barmy weight before pressing from a nutrient medium in which there was their cultivation, and tests of the final product are investigated in laboratories regarding absence in yeast of any chemical or microbiological dangers. So modern processes of production of yeast strikingly differ from processes of their production of times of the USSR!
Myth No. 4: “Bread is more useful than Without yeast barmy!”
Opponents of barmy bread claim that its use in food can lead to dysbacteriosis and other diseases.
Let’s assume that the person for these or those reasons refuses reception of bakery products in food at all (though we already found out that we in finished bread of living barmy cells are not present). In its usual diet surely there will be vegetables and fruit. And what it means? That microscopic fungi after all get to its organism. And in it there is nothing terrible!
Very few people reflect, yeast is how useful. They contain a large amount of vitamins of group B (B1, B2, B3 or PP, B5, B6, B8, B9, B12), the mineral substances extremely necessary for a human body (iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium), and also cellulose and proteins. Existence of such irreplaceable components does yeast by very interesting product from the point of view of a nutrition value and positive influence on health of skin, hair and nails. Useful properties of yeast long since found the application not only in house cosmetology, but also in house poultry farming, truck farming. Because of rich vitamin and mineral structure they are used for top dressing of a livestock of birds and fertilizer of soils in a warm season.
In Europe entering into food of the person of additives on the basis of yeast and barmy extracts is at the moment very developed. Besides a valuable set of vitamins, celluloses and a squirrel, are very popular such fractions as the beta glucans which are a structural element of a cellular wall of yeast and responsible for activation of protective functions of an organism, and also glyutation, having antioxidant properties.
So, if you have no food intolerance of protein of a gluten (gluten), egg or milk protein – use barmy pastries on health as it is a source of carbohydrates, vitamins of group B and PP!