Most often four types of a headache meet:
The most common form of a headache which can arise at each person from time to time. In spite of the fact that the headache of tension does not pose threat for life and health of the person, it can complicate daily activity considerably. People with private headaches of tension have to be followed up by a doctor.
Puchkovy (cluster) headache;
Rare disease (occurs approximately at 3 people from 1000). The Puchkovy (cluster) headache meets by 5 times more often at men, unlike the majority of other forms of a headache where women prevail. As a rule, the first attack is the share of age from 20 to 40 years, however the beginning of the Puchkovy (cluster) headache can be noted at any age.
Chronic daily headache
This term unite the headaches arising 15 and more days a month on an extent more than 3 months.
WHAT IS MIGRAINE?
Migraine is a neurologic disease. It is shown by attacks which can arise with various frequency – from 1-2 times a year, to several times a month.
The main manifestation of migrenozny attack is the headache which can be very strong. Nausea and vomiting, and also intolerance of light and sounds belong to other frequent manifestations.
If during a headache You feel sick, light or a sound irritates and the headache breaks habitual activity, then most likely it is migraine.
WHY THERE IS MIGRAINE?
The reason of migraine is covered in a brain. Pain at migraine is connected with violations in structures which are responsible for carrying out pain and other feelings. There is a hereditary predisposition to development of migraine: that is you can inherit it from someone from parents.
WHO HAS A MIGRAINE?
Every seventh adult so the disease meets rather often has migraine. At women migraine arises three times more often than at men. Usually the disease begins in the childhood or teenage age. At girls migraine, as a rule, begins during puberty. As there is a hereditary predisposition to development of migraine, this disease passes from father to son.
HOW MIGRAINE IS SHOWN?
All symptoms of migraine arise during an attack which has four stages of development though not all them them can be completely presented. Between attacks most of people with migraine feel well.
The phase of harbingers of migraine (продрóм) arises before all other symptoms of an attack and no more than at a half of patients. If you have prodry, then you can feel irritability, depression or fatigue in several hours or even for couple of days before development of a headache. Some on the contrary can note unusual increase of activity. At some people appetite can increase, some “just know” that they will develop an attack.
The aura, if it is, is the following phase. Only a third of patients with migraine ever noted aura, and it can develop not in each attack. The aura is a reflection of the certain process (passing and harmless for health) happening in a brain and connected with the mechanism of a migraine attack. It lasts 10-30 minutes, but maybe more long. Most often there is a visual aura. You can “see” blind spots, flashes of light or the multi-colored zigzag line extending from a sight midfield to the periphery. There are sensitive symptoms less often – feeling of a pricking or a sleep which arises in finger-tips on the one hand, extends to a shoulder up, sometimes passes to a cheek or language on the same party. Sensitive symptoms practically are always followed by visual violations. Besides, during aura there are difficulties of the speech or difficulty in selection of words.
The headache phase – the heaviest for most of people, lasts from several hours to 2-3 days. The Migrenozny headache usually happens very strong, arises in one half of the head more often, but can take also all head. Most often pain arises in frontal or temporal area though it can be localized in any part of the head. Usually it is the pulsing or holding apart pain which amplifies at the movement and physical activities. Quite often there is nausea and even vomiting which subjectively relieves a headache. During an attack light and sounds can be unpleasant, most of patients prefer to remain alone in the quiet and darkened room.
The phase of a headache is followed by a permission phase. During this period you can feel fatigue, irritability or depression again, it is difficult for you to concentrate attention. These symptoms can remain within a day before you feel completely healthy.
WHAT CAUSES MIGRAINES?
There is a lot of reasons of migraine and they are very various:
Diet: some products (and alcohol), but only at part of patients; much more often the admission of meal, inadequate food, cancellation of caffeine and an insufficient water consumption can cause an attack.
Dream: change of the mode of a dream, both sleep debt, and excess dream.
Other vital factors: intensive physical activity, long moving, especially with change of time zones.
Vneshnesredovye: bright or flickering light, pungent smells, weather changing.
Psychological: an emotional pressure or, strangely enough, relaxation after a stress.
Hormonal factors at women: periods, hormonal contraceptives and hormonal replacement therapy.
One of the frequent reasons of migraine is a hunger or insufficient meal. Especially it concerns young patients – the children having migraine should not miss a breakfast! At women significant potential is the reason the fluctuations of hormones connected with a menstrual cycle.
WHAT TREATMENT CAN BE USED?
Medicines which use for removal of the available migraine attack are called means for knocking over of migraine. Correctly picked up drugs can be very effective if are accepted correctly and in small amounts. Nonprescription analgetics, the majority of which contains aspirin, an ibuprofen or paracetamol, belong to such means; among them paracetamol is least effective. Soluble forms of these preparations, for example, in the form of sparkling tablets work quicker and better.
If you are very much disturbed by nausea or vomiting, it is possible to use antivomitives. Some of them actually strengthen action of analgetics as increase their absorption in a digestive tract. If you feel severe nausea or vomiting, then it is possible to use these preparations in the form of rectal candles.
Upon purchase of a preparation the druggist can advise you what nonprescription analgetic it is better to accept. If any of preparations of this class does not help you, or you need the preparation dose exceeding recommended, then you should address the neurologist.
The neurologist can prescribe you one of specific antimigrenozny preparations. It is necessary to resort to these preparations if analgetics and antivomitives are not withdrawn by the symptoms which are available for you and quickly do not return you daily activity. By the principle of action protivomigrenozny means differ from usual anesthetics. They influence not pain, and the pathological processes happening in a brain during migrenozny attack. Carry the ergotamine which is widely used in one countries and absent on sale in others and group of newer preparations carrying the name of a triptana to such means. If the doctor prescribed you these preparations, then if necessary you can combine them with analgetics and antivomitives.
WHAT TO DO IF THIS TREATMENT DOES NOT HELP?
If migraine attacks very frequent or heavy, also badly respond to treatment means for knocking over, then there is a preventive treatment. Unlike means for knocking over of an attack at preventive treatment it is necessary to accept preparations every day as this treatment is directed to prevention of development of attacks of migraine. In other words, preventive treatment allows to raise a threshold of emergence of a migrenozny attack.
At appointment to you one or more preparations, accurately follow instructions for their application. Researches showed that the most frequent reason of insufficient efficiency of preventive treatment – non-compliance with the mode of therapy.
WHAT ELSE CAN YOU MAKE TO HELP YOURSELF?
Regular trainings sport and maintenance of in shape will significantly improve your health. It is expedient to avoid the contributing factors and the reasons therefore it makes sense to know everything possible provokers. Try to exclude at least some of them even if it is difficult to establish other causes or them it is impossible to avoid in any way.
WHETHER ADDITIONAL INSPECTIONS ARE NECESSARY TO YOU?
In most cases diagnosis of migraine does not cause difficulties. There are no methods of inspection confirming the diagnosis of migraine. Diagnostics is based on your description of characteristics of a headache and the accompanying symptoms, at the same time lack of any deviations at medical examination is obligatory. Try as the neurologist can describe the headache in more detail. It is very important to report to the doctor about how it is frequent and in what quantities you accept anesthetics or other medicines in connection with a headache.
WHETHER IT IS POSSIBLE TO CURE MIGRAINE?
There are no methods of full treatment from migraine. Nevertheless, at most of people with migraine with age attacks become more rare.